Dimensions and Features of Canopies

Commonly Used in Emergency Parachute Systems


Canopy Type Manufacturer & Model

Mfg. Part No.

Notes

Advertised Diameter (feet)

Nominal Diameter (feet)

Finished Area (sq.ft.)

Drag Coefficient

Drag Area (sq.ft.)

Authorized Under FAA TSO (Technical Standard Order) Revision & Category

FAA Certificated Maximum Weight

Maximum Speed

Manufacturer's Recommended Maximum  Weight

Maximum Speed

Maximum Demonstrated Drop Test Weight

Drop Test Speed

Gore Area (sq.ft.)

Number of Gores

Gore Width (in.)

Gore Height (in.)

Line Break (lbs.)

Average Weight (lbs.)

Fabric Type (wt/permeability)

Construction Type

Diaper or Equal

Steerable ?

Butler Parachute - HX-300

3101

0

n/a

19.56

300

1.22

365

C23d

250 lb.

150 KEAS

175 lb.

165 KEAS

300 lb.

205 KEAS

18.75

16

725S

6.0

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Bias

yes

Tri-Vent

Butler Parachute - HX-400

3102

0

n/a

22.58

400

1.24

496

C23d

340 lb.

170 KEAS

236 lb.

185 KEAS

408 lb.

205 KEAS

22.22

18

725S

6.5

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Bias

yes

Tri-Vent

Butler Parachute - HX-500

3103

0

n/a

25.23

500

1.29

645

C23d

440 lb.

170 KEAS

306 lb.

185 KEAS

500 lb.

205 KEAS

25.00

20

725S

8.0

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Bias

yes

Tri-Vent

Butler Parachute - HX-500/24

3106

0

n/a

25.23

500

1.29

645

C23d

440 lb.

170 KEAS

306 lb.

185 KEAS

500 lb.

205 KEAS

20.83

24

725S

8.6

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Bias

yes

Tri-Vent

Butler Parachute - HX-600

3104

0

n/a

27.64

600

1.34

803

C23d

500 lb.

170 KEAS

382 lb.

185 KEAS

600 lb.

205 KEAS

27.27

22

725S

9.5

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Bias

yes

Tri-Vent

Butler Parachute - XTC-500

120

0

26

25.23

500

1.29

645

C23c, Cat. B

254 lb.

150 KIAS

254 lb.

150 KIAS

300 lb.

175 KIAS

20.85

24

31.50

13.03

550N

9.0

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Bias

yes

Tri-Vent

FFE (Handbury) Preserve I

FFE-201

5

24

21.97

379

0.95

360

C23b Standard

n/a

n/a

17.24

22

34.00

146.00

550N

6.0

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Block

yes

Tri-Vent

FFE Preserve III

FFE-202

5

24

20.28

323

0.95

307

C23b Low

n/a

150 mph

16.16

20

33.00

141.00

400N

6.0

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Block

yes

Tri-Vent

FFE Preserve III-1

5

24

21.27

355

0.95

338

C23b Low

n/a

150 mph

16.16

22

33.00

141.00

400N

6.5

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Block

yes

Tri-Vent

FFE Preserve IV

FFE-202(A)

5

22

19.75

306

0.95

291

C23b Low

n/a

150 mph

15.31

20

36.00

122.50

400N

5.0

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Block

yes

Tri-Vent

National 26' LoPo

?

1

26

22.89

412

0.89

366

C23b Standard

n/a

n/a

17.15

24

32.50

152.00

550N

8.0

1.1 oz. 30-50 CFM

Bias

no

4-line

National - Phantom 22

?

22

18.73

276

0.95

262

C23b Low

n/a

150 mph

15.31

18

35.00

126.00

400N

4.1

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Block

yes

Tri-Vent

National 360 - Phantom 24

81002-1

24

20.74

338

0.95

321

C23b Standard

n/a

n/a

16.89

20

35.00

139.00

400N

5.1

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Block

yes

Tri-Vent

National 425 - Phantom 26

81002-2

26

22.92

413

0.95

392

C23b Standard

n/a

n/a

18.75

22

36.00

150.00

400N

6.1

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Block

yes

Tri-Vent

National 490 - Phantom 28

81002-3?

28

24.91

488

0.95

463

C23b Standard

n/a

n/a

20.31

24

36.00

162.50

400N

7.0

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Block

yes

Tri-Vent

North American 22' TriCon

2

22

19.14

288

1.01

291

C23b Low

n/a

150 mph

14.39

20

31.50

126.00

600N

6.0

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Bias

yes

Tri-Vent

North American 26' TriCon

2

26

24.43

469

1.01

474

C23b Standard

n/a

n/a

250 lb.

130 KIAS

19.54

24

31.00

148.00

600N

9.3

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Bias

yes

T-Vent

ParaInnovators R1

R1

3

21

21.03

348

0.95

330

C23b Low

n/a

150 mph

unknown

unknown

unknown

unknown

17.38

20

36.00

139.00

550N

7.0

1.9 oz. 0-3 CFM

Bias

yes

Tri-Vent

ParaInnovators R2

R2

3

24

20.21

321

0.95

305

C23b Low

n/a

150 mph

unknown

unknown

unknown

unknown

16.04

20

35.00

132.00

550N

6.0

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Block

yes

Tri-Vent

ParaInnovators R4-1

R4-1

3

26

22.76

407

0.89

362

C23b Standard

n/a

n/a

unknown

unknown

unknown

unknown

18.50

22

37.00

144.00

550N

6.5

1.1 oz 30-50 CFM

Bias

yes

Tri-Vent

ParaInnovators R4-3

R4-3

3

26

22.76

407

0.95

387

C23b Low

n/a

150 mph

unknown

unknown

unknown

unknown

18.50

22

37.00

144.00

400N

6.2

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Block

yes

Tri-Vent

Pioneer 26 LoPo

2412

6

26

C23b Standard

24

400N

1.1 oz 30-50 CFM

Block

wrap

T-Vent

Pioneer 23' Tri-Conical

1.019 GR-1

6

23

C23b Standard

22

400N

1.1 oz 30-50 CFM

Block

wrap

T-Vent

Pioneer K-20

5375-1

6

20

C23b Low

n/a

150 mph

20

400D

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Bias

yes

Tri-Vent

Pioneer K-22

5418-1

6

22

C23b Low

n/a

150 mph

?

400D

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Bias

yes

Tri-Vent

Pioneer K-26

5400-1

6

26

C23b Low

n/a

150 mph

?

400D

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Block

yes

Tri-Vent

Security 150 (26 LoPo)

64E1209-1A

1

26

22.69

404

0.89

360

C23b Low

n/a

150 mph

16.84

24

33.00

147.00

400N

7.5

1.1 oz. 30-50 CFM

Block

no

T-Vent

Security 250 (26 LoPo)

73E1581

1

26

22.89

412

0.89

366

C23b Standard

n/a

n/a

17.15

24

32.50

152.00

550N

8.0

1.1 oz. 30-50 CFM

Bias

no

T-Vent

Security 350/850 (SAC)

1

22

21.10

350

0.93

325

C23b Low

n/a

150 mph

17.48

20

30.00

148.75

400N

5.8

1.1 oz. 0-3 CFM

Bias

yes

Tri-Vent

Strong 26' LoPo

26

22.07

383

0.89

340

C23b Standard, C23c Cat. B

254 lb.

150 KIAS

254 lb.

150 KIAS

300 lb.

175 KIAS

15.94

24

30.50

150.50

600N

7.5

1.1 oz. 30-50 CFM

Block

yes

Tri-Vent

Strong 26' LoPo Lite

26

21.20

353

0.89

314

C23b Standard

254 lb.

150 KIAS

225 lb.

300 lb.

175 KIAS

16.04

22

31.00

149.00

400N

6.1

1.1 oz. 30-50 CFM

Block

yes

Tri-Vent

Strong 26' LoPo Mid-Lite

26

22.07

383

0.89

340

C23b Standard, C23c Cat. B

254 lb.

150 KIAS

254 lb.

150 KIAS

300 lb.

175 KIAS

15.94

24

30.50

150.50

600N

7.5

1.1 oz. 30-50 CFM

Block

yes

Tri-Vent

USAF/USN 28' C-9

50E6877-3

4

28

27.16

579

0.77

446

Note 2

n/a

n/a

300 lb.

225 KIAS

> 300 lb.

> 250 KIAS

20.68

28

37.00

161.00

550N

12.0

1.1 oz. 80-120 CFM

Bias

no

no/4-line

USArmy 24' Flat

48J7156-3

4

24

22.31

391

0.77

301

Note 2

n/a

n/a

200 lb.

175 KIAS

300 lb.

175 KIAS

16.29

24

34.00

138.00

550N

9.3

1.1 oz. 80-120 CFM

Bias

no

no/4-line

USN 26' Conical

606019-23

4

26

22.84

410

0.83

340

Note 2

n/a

n/a

225 lb.

175 KIAS

300 lb.

175 KIAS

18.63

22

36.00

149.00

550N

8.5

1.1 oz. 80-120 CFM

Bias

no

no/4-line

 

Numbered Notes:

0.     Butler Parachute Systems uses the total surface area of the canopy to arrive at the Nominal Diameter, which is the engineering convention in the parachute industry.

1.     Security Parachute Company was purchased by GQ Parachute Company in 1979. They subsequently withdrew from the US civil market in 1984 because of products liability concerns.

2.     North American canopies are no longer commonly available although the company is still in business

3.     ParaInnovators went out of business in 1988.

4.     Maximum weight and speeds shown for these canopies are the author's opinion based on engineering judgement.

5.     FFE Canopies are commonly used in ParaPhernalia Products, although not exclusively.

6.     Pioneer Parachute Company withdrew from the US civil market in the early 1980's because of products liability concerns.

General Notes:

This list is incomplete and may contain errors - it is intended for general comparative purposes only. Some material is the opinion of the author.

Drag coefficients shown are in the mid-range of expected performance for each type canopy.

For cloth permeability of 30-50 CFM, 7% was added to the drag coefficient based on canopy shape.

For cloth permeability of 0-3 CFM, 15% was added to the drag coefficient based on canopy shape.

For landing altitudes above sea level, add approximately 2% per 1000' to the figures shown.

The FAA considers military surplus canopies to be equivalent to Standard Category and imposes no operating limits.

TSO C23b, Standard Category requires a 5000 lb. shock load test for the parachute system. There are no FAA imposed operating limits - obviously there are physical limits.

TSO C23b, Low Speed Category requires a 3000 lb. shock load. FAA then sets the operating limits are set at 150 mph without weight restrictions

TSO C23c went into effect in 1984. Since that time, only Butler Parachute Systems and Strong Enterprises have certificated new round canopies under C23.

TSO C23d went into effect in 1994. Since that time, only Butler Parachute Systems has certificated new round canopies under C23.

Canopies with entries under "gore height" and "gore width" are based on actual measurements unless engineering data is available.

Canopies with blank entries under "gore height" and "gore width" indicate that the data is not available or that it might be misleading (in the case of shaped gore canopies for example).

The advertised diameter (where used) is commonly determined by measuring from skirt to apex to skirt. This is misleading for all except flat circular canopies and gives an exaggerated number.

Copyright 1999 by Manley C. Butler, Jr. - all rights reserved

 

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